3D Printed Functional and Biological Materials 

on Moving Freeform Surfaces

  • We reported an adaptive 3D printing method for autonomous manufacturing of multifunctional devices on moving freeform surfaces, which combines direct ink writing with closed-loop feedback and computer-vision-based control techniques.

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Shape Tracking

Motion Tracking (6DoF)

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Printing on a Moving Model Hand


Monitor Camera View 

Tracking Camera View

  • Wirelessly powered devices and wireless moisture sensors were fabricated on human hands, via 3D printing a novel functional ink that is highly conductive, room-temperature processable and flexible.

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Printing of Wireless-Powered Device

Wireless Moisture Sensor

Easy Removal

  • The adaptive 3D printing method also enabled autonomous deposition of cell-laden hydrogels onto desired locations of live mice*, creating a model for future studies of wound-healing diseases (e.g., Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa).

3D Scan of Wound Bed

In situ Printing of Cell-Laden Hydrogel

Bioluminescence of Cells

*All animal studies were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) at the University of Minnesota.