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Next-generation bioengineering technologies will play vital roles in regenerative medicine, smart assistive devices, and potentially even human augmentation. The progress in these technologies has already started benefiting human society via the broad applications of wearable devices such as electrocardiogram wristbands and heart pacemakers.

3D printing technology provides a novel approach to integrating functional materials in the form of wearable devices with human bodies. A diverse palette of functional materials including conductive materials and silicone materials have been developed for 3D printing of electronic sensors and organ models. 

However, conventional 3D printing systems operate based on an open-loop control framework: after prior calibration of the workspace, the printer starts printing "blindly" without further acquisition of information from the workspace. The incorporation of AI with a closed-loop feedback control system would enable the 3D printer to adapt to the deformation and motion of the target and perform in situ manufacturing on a human hand or organ. 

Vision feedback;

3D motion tracking

Conductive silver ink;

Cell-laden hydrogel ink

Wireless electronics;

Wound treatment

Machine Learning;

3D deformation tracking

Conductive hydrogel ink;

Multi-material printing

Electrical impedance tomography sensor